Here we had better review a bit of English history. William, the Duke of Normandy (ca. 1027-87), claimed that his cousin, the late King Edward the Confessor, had bequeathed to him the crown of England. To enforce his claim he led his army across the English Channel and invaded England. He was opposed by the Saxon King Harold II, whom he defeated at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. William subsequently appended a well-justified “the Conqueror” to his name and built the first part of the Tower of London, the White Tower.


our gallant Norman foes

Act I
Sketch of a Norman