Pfennig Halbpfennig

Literally: penny half-penny, implying here an insignificant political entity. “Tuppeny ha’penny” is a good British slang description of anything inferior and trivial (234). Barker (26) and Bradley (48) note a historical model: Landgraf Wilhelm of Hesse Cassel, who decreed that revenue collections should avoid fractions of a pfennig and round up to the next full pfennig. This petty avarice inspired his subjects to nickname him “Halbpfennig.”

The grand duke’s duchy